Copyright 2020 - copyright UMR ESPACE-DEV - 2017

Nos dernières publications - Juin 2020

icone documentation publication

  1. Gaetani M., Janicot Serge, Vrac M., Famien A. M., Sultan Benjamin. (2020). Robust assessment of the time of emergence of precipitation change in West Africa. Scientific Reports - Nature, 10 (1).

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-63782-2

    WOS:000534024000037

    The time of emergence (TOE) of climate change is defined as the time when a new climate state emerges from a prior one. TOE assessment is particularly relevant in West Africa, a region highly threatened by climate change and urgently needing trustworthy climate predictions. In this paper, the TOE of precipitation change in West Africa is assessed for the first time, by analyzing 6 precipitation metrics (cumulated precipitation, number of wet and very wet days, onset and length of the rainy season) computed from the output of 29 state-of-the-art climate models. In West Sahel, climate conditions characterized by reduced occurrence of wet days are likely to emerge before 2036, leading to the possible emergence of a dryer climate in 2028-2052. In East Sahel, a wetter precipitation regime characterized by increased occurrence of very wet days is likely to emerge before 2054. Results do not provide a clear indication about a possible climate shift in the onset and length of the rainy season. Although uncertainty in climate model future projections still limits the robust determination of TOE locally, this study provides reliable time constraints to the expected climate shift in West Africa at the sub-regional scale, supporting adaptation measures to the future change in the precipitation regime.

    Affiliation IRD : UMR 182 (LOCEAN) ; UMR 228 (ESPACE-DEV)

    Copublication Sud avec : Côte d'ivoire

    Lien Horizon FDI : http://www.documentation.ird.fr/hor/fdi:010078080

    Descr. géo. Horizon : AFRIQUE DE L'OUEST ; SAHEL

  2. Gobinddass M. L., Molinie J., Richard S., Panechou K., Jeannot A., Jean-Louis S. (2020). Coastal Sea Salt Chlorine Deposition Linked to Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) Oscillation in French Guiana. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 77 (5), 1723-1731.

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/jas-d-19-0032.1

    WOS:000535703800011

    Sea salt chloride is a major component of atmospheric aerosol and its behavior is an essential element in determining the climate. Two atmospheric chlorine deposition measurement procedures were performed between 2004 and 2008 by the French Guiana Regional Air Observatory (ORA), in the coastal plain of Sinnamary. The main goal was to determine the background spatial distribution of marine chlorine in order to evaluate the impact of Ariane rocket hydrogen chloride emission. To determine the chlorine concentration level, weekly samples from 10 sites were analyzed. A seasonal pattern was identified. For every site, a high sea salt chlorine deposition level was observed from December to April and a low level from July to October. The ratio of high to low mean chloride concentration R-HC/LC shows that just under half of the variation in chlorine deposition can be linked to the variation of sea salt production with low-level wind speed. Equations relating mean sea salt chlorine concentration and the distance to shore were studied, taking into account parameters found in other tropical regions, with a focus on neighboring Brazil. The wind rotation between the two seasons, and the sea salt chlorine loss per kilometer equation found for dry deposition, were used to calculate R-HC/LC. It appears that the observed rotation (60 degrees) explains 88% of R-HC/LC. Finally, inland sea salt chlorine deposition behavior in this region was linked to intertropical convergence zone oscillation through variations in wind speed and direction.

    Affiliation IRD : UMR 228 (ESPACE-DEV)

  3. Mosnier E., Dusfour I., Lacour G., Saldanha R., Guidez A., Gomes M. S., Sanna A., Epelboin Y., Restrepo J., Davy D., Demar M., Djossou F., Douine M., Ardillon V., Nacher M., Musset L., Roux Emmanuel. (2020). Resurgence risk for malaria, and the characterization of a recent outbreak in an Amazonian border area between French Guiana and Brazil. BMC Infectious Diseases, 20 (1).

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05086-4

    WOS:000537854900001

    Background In 2017, inhabitants along the border between French Guiana and Brazil were affected by a malaria outbreak primarily due to Plasmodium vivax (Pv). While malaria cases have steadily declined between 2005 and 2016 in this Amazonian region, a resurgence was observed in 2017. Methods Two investigations were performed according to different spatial scales and information details: (1) a local study on the French Guiana border, which enabled a thorough investigation of malaria cases treated at a local village health center and the entomological circumstances in the most affected neighborhood, and (2) a regional and cross-border study, which enabled exploration of the regional spatiotemporal epidemic dynamic. Number and location of malaria cases were estimated using French and Brazilian surveillance systems. Results On the French Guianese side of the border in Saint-Georges de l'Oyapock, the attack rate was 5.5% (n = 4000), reaching 51.4% (n = 175) in one Indigenous neighborhood. Entomological findings suggest a peak of Anopheles darlingi density in August and September. Two female An. darlingi (n = 1104, 0.18%) were found to be Pv-positive during this peak. During the same period, aggregated data from passive surveillance conducted by Brazilian and French Guianese border health centers identified 1566 cases of Pv infection. Temporal distribution during the 2007-2018 period displayed seasonal patterns with a peak in November 2017. Four clusters were identified among epidemic profiles of cross-border area localities. All localities of the first two clusters were Brazilian. The localization of the first cluster suggests an onset of the outbreak in an Indigenous reservation, subsequently expanding to French Indigenous neighborhoods and non-Native communities. Conclusions The current findings demonstrate a potential increase in malaria cases in an area with otherwise declining numbers. This is a transborder region where human mobility and remote populations challenge malaria control programs. This investigation illustrates the importance of international border surveillance and collaboration for malaria control, particularly in Indigenous villages and mobile populations.

    Affiliation IRD : UMR 259 (SESSTIM) ; (sans mention d'UMR) ; UMR 228 (ESPACE-DEV)

    Copublication Sud avec : Brésil

    Lien Horizon FDI : http://www.documentation.ird.fr/hor/fdi:010078146

    Descr. géo. Horizon : GUYANE FRANCAISE ; BRESIL ; AMAZONIE

  4. Mury A., Collin A., Jeanson M., James D., Gloria H., Pastol Y., Etienne S. (2020). Mapping Nature-based Marine Flooding Risk using VHR Wave, Airborne LiDAR and Satellite Imagery: The Case Study of the Dol Marsh (Bay of Mont-Saint-Michel, France). Journal of Coastal Research, (95), 743-747.

    http://dx.doi.org/10.2112/si95-145.1

    WOS:000537556600139

    A growing interest in nature-based solutions has gained unprecedented attention in the coastal risk management, to complement or replace conventional approaches like hard structures (dykes, seawalls, breakwaters). However, due to the diversity of coastal ecosystems and the heterogeneity of the ecosystem service of wave attenuation they can induce, the integration of their protective role in an accurate way into risk studies remains rare. This paper shows an experimental methodology to integrate this ecosystem service into the risk mapping at very high spatial resolution using in situ sensors, airborne LiDAR and spaceborne satellite imagery. Risk study is achieved using a combination of indices which allows to evaluate the asset's exposure and vulnerability. The nature-based solution is also integrated through the creation of an adaptive capacity index, based on a spatially-explicit model of wave attenuation. The study enables to highlight the assets which are the most concerned by the marine flooding risk, using a synthetic risk index ranging from 0 to 1.

    Affiliation IRD : UMR 228 (ESPACE-DEV)

  5. Proudfoot B., Devillers Rodolphe, Brown C. J., Ediner E., Copeland A. (2020). Seafloor mapping to support conservation planning in an ecologically unique fjord in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Journal of Coastal Conservation, 24 (3).

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11852-020-00746-8

    WOS:000537437900001

    As human impacts continue to threaten coastal habitats and ecosystems, marine benthic habitat and substrate mapping has become a key component of many conservation and management initiatives. Understanding the composition and extent of marine habitats can inform marine protected area (MPA) planning and monitoring, help identify vulnerable or rare habitats and support fisheries management. To support conservation planning in Eastern Canada, we mapped the seafloor of Newman Sound, identifying the benthoscape classes (i.e. discrete biophysical seafloor classes) of this ecologically diverse and unique fjord in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL). Mapping was achieved using multibeam echosounder (MBES) data collected using multiple platforms, seafloor videos and an unsupervised pixel-based classification method. Seven benthoscape classes were identified within the extent of the MBES coverages. Multivariate statistical analyses indicate that two benthoscape classes - mixed boulder and mud - support distinct epifaunal communities, and also capture the changes in benthic community composition between hard/shallow substrates and soft/deep substrates. Our results illustrate how benthoscape maps can inform marine spatial planning and conservation in the Newman Sound region, support monitoring and also calls for adaptive management of the adjacent Eastport MPA.

    Affiliation IRD : UMR 228 (ESPACE-DEV)

    Lien Horizon FDI : http://www.documentation.ird.fr/hor/fdi:010078137

    Descr. géo. Horizon : CANADA ; TERRE NEUVE ; LABRADOR

  6. Proudfoot B., Devillers Rodolphe, Brown C. J. (2020). Integrating fine-scale seafloor mapping and spatial pattern metrics into marine conservation prioritization. Aquatic Conservation : Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, [Early access].

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aqc.3360

    WOS:000536475700001

    Marine protected area (MPA) planning often relies on scientific principles that help ensure that an area selected for conservation will effectively protect biodiversity. Capturing ecological processes in MPA network planning has received increased attention in recent years. High-resolution seafloor maps, which show patterns in seafloor bio-physical characteristics, can support our understanding of ecological processes. In part, owing to a global lack of high-resolution seafloor maps, studies that aim to integrate seascape spatial pattern and conservation prioritization often focus on shallow biogenic habitats with less attention paid to deeper benthic seascapes (benthoscapes) mapped using acoustic techniques. Acoustic seafloor mapping strategies yield the spatial information required to extend conservation prioritization research into these environments, making incorporating seafloor ecological processes into conservation prioritization increasingly achievable. Here, a new method is proposed and tested that combines benthoscape mapping, landscape ecology metrics and a conservation decision support tool to prioritize areas with structural and potential connectivity value in MPA placement. Using a case study in eastern Canada, benthoscape composition and configuration were quantified using spatial pattern metrics and integrated into Marxan. Results illustrate how large patches of seafloor habitat in close proximity to neighbouring patches can be preferentially selected when benthoscape configuration is considered. The flexibility of the method for including relevant spatial pattern metrics or species-specific movement data is discussed to illustrate how benthic habitat maps can improve existing conservation planning methods and complement existing and future work to support marine biodiversity conservation.

    Affiliation IRD : UMR 228 (ESPACE-DEV)

    Lien Horizon FDI : http://www.documentation.ird.fr/hor/fdi:010078101

    Descr. géo. Horizon : CANADA ; ATLANTIQUE NORD ; NEWMAN SOUND, TERRE NEUVE ; LABRADOR

  7. Tran A., Mangeas Morgan, Demarchi M., Roux Emmanuel, Degenne P., Haramboure M., Le Goff GilbertDamiens DavidGouagna Louis-ClémentHerbreteau Vincent, Dehecq J. S. (2020). Complementarity of empirical and process-based approaches to modelling mosquito population dynamics with Aedes albopictus as an example : application to the development of an operational mapping tool of vector populations. PLoS One, 15 (1).

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0227407

    WOS:000534370500019

    Mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of major pathogens worldwide. Modelling their population dynamics and mapping their distribution can contribute effectively to disease surveillance and control systems. Two main approaches are classically used to understand and predict mosquito abundance in space and time, namely empirical (or statistical) and process-based models. In this work, we used both approaches to model the population dynamics in Reunion Island of the 'Tiger mosquito', Aedes albopictus, a vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses, using rainfall and temperature data. We aimed to i) evaluate and compare the two types of models, and ii) develop an operational tool that could be used by public health authorities and vector control services. Our results showed that Ae. albopictus dynamics in Reunion Island are driven by both rainfall and temperature with a non-linear relationship. The predictions of the two approaches were consistent with the observed abundances of Ae. albopictus aquatic stages. An operational tool with a user-friendly interface was developed, allowing the creation of maps of Ae. albopictus densities over the whole territory using meteorological data collected from a network of weather stations. It is now routinely used by the services in charge of vector control in Reunion Island.

    Affiliation IRD : UMR 228 (ESPACE-DEV) ; UMR 224 (MIVEGEC)

    Lien Horizon FDI : http://www.documentation.ird.fr/hor/fdi:010078087

    Descr. géo. Horizon : REUNION

 

Soutenance de thèse - Anh Thu LE - 26 juin 2020

Anh Thu LE soutiendra sa thèse intitulée "Le Vietnam – une destination touristique kitsch ? Exemple de la station climatique de Dalat" à 14h00 le 26 juin 2020, dans la Salle des thesardthèse de l'Université d'Avignon.

Thèse préparée au sein de l'UMR Espace-Dev (228) sous la direction de M. Philippe BACHIMON - Professeur de Géographie de l'Université d'Avignon, pour obtenir le grade de Docteur en Géographie.

Devant le jury composé de:

- M. Philippe BACHIMON, Professeur, Géographie, Avignon Université (Directeur de thèse)

- Mme Julie DERAMOND, Maître de conférences, Muséologie, Avignon Université (Examinatrice)

- M. Pierre DERIOZ, Maitre de Conférences – HDR, Géographie, Avignon Université (Examinateur)

- Mme Edith FAGNONI, Professeure, Géographie, Sorbonne Université (Rapporteur)

- M. Jean-Yves PUYO, Professeur, Géographie, Université de Pau (Rapporteur)

 

Résumé

En 1995, l’administration américaine sous la présidence Clinton a officiellement levé les blocages dans les échanges avec le Vietnam. A partir de ce repère important, le pays est devenu la nouvelle destination ayant attiré les touristes étrangers pour le découvrir. La beauté des paysages divers, l’art culinaire et l’hospitalité de la communauté locale étaient des points d’intérêt qui ont permis au Vietnam de développer le tourisme. Plus de deux décennies venant de passer, en observant ces activités touristiques actuelles du pays, nous constatons que les trois atouts ci-dessus ne demeurent plus aussi authentiques ni sincères qu’ils ne l’étaient au début. Ils sont artificialisés, mélangés et exotisés pour répondre aux demandes des touristes, notamment des touristes domestiques.
Ce contexte nous a poussé à mener ce travail de recherche pour essayer de comprendre comment, pourquoi et de quelle(s) manière(s) le Kitsch a pu imprégner petit à petit la vie quotidienne et l’esprit des Vietnamiens. A présent, il devient un phénomène social amplifié par les médias et les réseaux sociaux. L’emploi du Kitsch est considéré comme un des moyens soft que la gouvernance communiste utilise pour réparer les dégâts causés par les décennies de guerres. Cependant, à long terme, sera-t-il toujours un outil aussi efficace dans la mise en tourisme de la destination Vietnam en général, et de la station climatique de Dalat – notre étude de cas – en particulier ?
Mots clés :
Tourisme, Kitsch, Dalat, Epoque coloniale, Authenticité, Exotisme, Selfie

Abstract

In 1995, the American administration under B. Clinton officially ended trade embargo and removed the economic blockage with Vietnam. As of this major key point, the country became a new destination to discover, attracting tourists worldwide. The beauty of its diverse landscapes, the culinary art and the hospitality of the local community were the main advantages that helped Vietnam to develop its tourism sector. More than two decades later, when observing the current tourism activities of the country, we realize that the above mentioned three are no longer as authentic as they were at the beginning. They are artificialized, mixed and “exotized” to meet the diverse demands of domestic tourists.
This context urged us to conduct the present research attempting to understand how, why and in which way(s) the Kitsch was able to gradually immerse in the daily life and in the minds of Vietnamese people. It currently becomes a social phenomenon amplified by the media and the social networks. The use of Kitsch is considered as a soft remedy that the Communist governance applies to relieve the damage caused during the decades of wars. However, on the long term, will it still be an effective tool in the tourism development of the destination Vietnam in general, and of the climatic health resort of Dalat – our case study – in particular?
Keywords:
Tourism, Kitsch, Dalat, Colonial era, Authenticity, Exotism, Selfie

Projet Forest For Food

F4FL'umr Espace-Dev est partenaire du projet Forest For Food (F4F) financé dans le cadre de l'appel à projet MUSE Recherche 2020 lancé conjointement avec l’Institut Convergences #DigitAg.

Réduire la déforestation dans les pays en développement peut être un moyen rentable de réduire les émissions de carbone et de lutter contre le changement climatique. Mais comment empêcher la déforestation et la dégradation des terres forestières dans les zones où les propriétaires fonciers dépendent, pour leur subsistance, de l'agriculture sur brûlis et l'élevage extensif de bétail, deux principaux moteurs de la déforestation ? Le dilemme de la sécurité alimentaire et du changement climatique en Amazonie brésilienne est une préoccupation majeure de la communauté internationale depuis de nombreuses années maintenant.
De nombreux dispositifs ont été mis en place (amendes, taxes sur le défrichement, contrat dit de paiement des services écosystémiques, échange des émissions évitées sur un marché mondial du carbone...) mais les preuves solides de l'efficacité de ces politiques de conservation des forêts restent très rares.

Le projet F4F (Forest for Food) vise à fournir des preuves empiriques de l'efficacité des programmes publics pour atteindre à la fois les objectifs liés à la sécurité alimentaire et la conservation. Notre ambition est de fournir une évaluation complète des programmes innovants de conservation des forêts mis en œuvre en Amazonie brésilienne, en utilisant les techniques de télédétection et économétriques les plus avancées, et en combinant l'écologie humaine, économie, géographie humaine et sociologie.

En savoir plus

Nos dernières publications - Mai 2020

icone documentation publication

  1. Euphrasie-Clotilde L., Plocoste T., Feuillard T., Velasco-Merino C., Mateos D., Toledano C., Brute F. N., Bassette C., Gobinddass M. (2020). Assessment of a new detection threshold for PM10 concentrations linked to African dust events in the Caribbean Basin. Atmospheric Environment, 224.

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2020.117354

    WOS:000525865300051

    The Lesser Antilles is an intermediate zone located between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. This area is frequently affected by the major long range Saharan dust transportation from West African desert sources. The aerosols optical properties are provided by the AEronet Robotic NETwork (AERONET) measurement sites in Puerto Rico, Guadeloupe, and Barbados. Thus, Aerosols Optical Depth (AOD), Angstrom Exponent (AE), Volume Particle Size Distribution (VPSD), complex refractive indexes, and Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) were used to define the predominant type of atmospheric particles namely sea salt aerosols, mineral dust or aerosols mixture. Obtained results show that aerosols in the atmospheric column (AOD) and surface dust measurements (PM 10) are well correlated with correlation coefficients of 0.72 and 0.81 respectively for Puerto Rico, and Guadeloupe. Detailed analysis of optical data associated to daily PM 10 concentrations highlighted that dust phenomenon can be observable below PM 10 threshold of 50 mu g/m(3) given by the European directives to detect dust episodes. Indeed, for Caribbean islands, episodes of desert dust phenomenon have been detected from 35 mu g/m(3). The climatological assessment of monthly dust events observed in Puerto Rico, Guadeloupe, and Martinique between 2006 and 2016 highlighted a low dust season from November to February and a high dust season from May to August. Both seasons are separated by two transition dust periods: March to April and September to October. Lastly, the day-to-day back trajectories (NOAA-HYSPLIT) illustrated the general atmospheric circulation and show three main dust transportation routes: the North West African Path (62.7%); the South West African Path (20.8%); and the North East Atlantic Path (15.1%). By computing the average PM 10 concentrations bring from each path, we notice that South West African Path is the most loaded in mineral dust because he comes from one of the most persistently active and intense dust sources in the world, i.e. Bodele Depression in northern Chad.

    Affiliation IRD : UMR 228 (ESPACE-DEV)

  2. Fuckner M., de Carvalho O. A., Gurgel H., Barcellos C., Durieux Laurent. (2019). Análise dos padrões espaço-temporais das internações por diarreia e do clima nas capitais brasileiras = Analysis of the spatial and temporal patterns of diarrhea hospitalizations and climate in brazilian capitals. Confins, 42.

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4000/confins.23297

    WOS:000526426600012

    Diarrhea constitutes a major public health problem in Brazil and in the world and its seasonal dynamics of occurrence is associated with environmental conditions, such as climate-related factors. This research studied the temporal pattern of hospitalizations motivated by diarrhea and gastroenteritis with presumed infectious origin (DGOIP) in 27 Brazilian capitals, monthly recorded from 1998 to 2012, as well as the rainfall and temperature patterns. It involved the preparation and interpretation of climatograms and histograms containing quarterly data and simple linear correlation analysis. The results allowed to observe that there are more defined patterns of hospitalizations prevalence, in a given period of the year, in areas where there are two well-defined seasons, rainy and dry season, and in the other regions, such as the South of Brazil, there aren't an unique predominant pattern. The rainy season pattern was mainly related to the North and Northeast regions and the dry season pattern to the Midwest and Southeast, which assumed a change in the predominant etiology of infection, if bacterial or viral, according to the literature. The study found that factors such as seasonality and climate-related are relevant in the analysis of DGOIP occurrence patterns, and continuous observation of hospitalizations should be performed to detect changes in seasonal patterns of the disease, notably considering the wide coverage of child vaccination for rotavirus in Brazil.

    Affiliation IRD : UMR 228 (ESPACE-DEV)

    Copublication Sud avec : Brésil

    Lien Horizon FDI : http://www.documentation.ird.fr/hor/fdi:010077248

    Descr. géo. Horizon : BRESIL

  3. Gregorio L. D., Gurgel H., Dessay Nadine, de Sousa G. M., Roux Emmanuel. (2019). Estimativa populacional pelo modelo people in pixel aplicado ao estudo da dengue no Distrito Federal-Brasil = Population estimate by people in pixel model applied to the study of dengue in the Federal District-Brazil. Confins, 42.

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4000/confins.22922

    WOS:000526426600006

    In health studies, obtaining spatialized demographic data is essential for understanding diseases transmission and dispersal processes, and for calculating the incidence rate as well, which are fundamental to control and prevention strategies. The development and application of population estimation methods, in a detailed scale, aiming to obtain population number, mainly during non-census years, may contribute to the analysis of the incidence of a particular disease. This paper aims to present a population estimation method, developed from an adaptation of the people in pixel method (Cruz et al., 2007), and can be applied in spatial units of different resolutions. The annual population estimation of the "health zones" (ZBS) of the Federal District of Brazil between 2007 and 2014 was applied in order to study the spatial distribution of dengue incidence rates over time. This study allowed to identify areas of high dengue transmission and show the interannual variability of spatial transmission patterns of the disease, which may contribute to the definition of dengue control strategies in the Federal District of Brazil.

    Affiliation IRD : UMR 228 (ESPACE-DEV)

    Copublication Sud avec : Brésil

    Lien Horizon FDI : http://www.documentation.ird.fr/hor/fdi:010077246

    Descr. géo. Horizon : BRESIL

  4. Gurgel H., Laques Anne-Elisabeth. (2019). Dossiê aplicações em geografia, saúde e meio ambiente [Introducao] = Thematic dossier on applications in geography, health and environment [Introduction] = Dossier thématique sur des exemples d'applications en géographie, santé et environnement [Introduct. Confins, 42.

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4000/confins.22710

    WOS:000526426600002

    Affiliation IRD : UMR 228 (ESPACE-DEV)

    Copublication Sud avec : Brésil

    Lien Horizon FDI : http://www.documentation.ird.fr/hor/fdi:010077244

    Descr. géo. Horizon : BRESIL ; NIGER

  5. Gurgel H., Laques Anne-Elisabeth. (2019). Dossiê Temitico sobre aplicaçôes em geografia, saude e meio ambiente = Dossier thématique sur des exemples d'applications en géographie, santé et environnement = Thematic dossier on applications in geography, health and environment. Confins, 42.

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4000/confins.22710

    WOS:000526426600003

    Affiliation IRD : UMR 228 (ESPACE-DEV)

    Copublication Sud avec : Brésil

    Lien Horizon FDI : http://www.documentation.ird.fr/hor/fdi:010077243

    Descr. géo. Horizon : BRESIL ; NIGER

  6. Lebeau-Desmoulin L., Bruneau L., Commins Jérémy, Herbreteau Vincent, Raffray L. (2020). Identifying factors associated with treatment delay in leptospirosis : a retrospective study of patients admitted to hospital in Reunion (Indian Ocean) between 2014 and 2015. Medecine et Maladies Infectieuses, 50 (4), 352-360.

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.medmal.2019.09.008

    WOS:000533527900009

    Background. - Leptospirosis is a life-threatening zoonotic disease for which delayed treatment onset has been associated to poor prognosis. The purpose of the study was to identify the determinants of therapeutic delay in hospitalized leptospirosis cases. Patients and methods. - We carried out a retrospective multicenter study in the 4 public hospitals of Reunion Island, South Western Indian Ocean. Medical records of confirmed leptospirosis cases occurring in 2014-2015 were reviewed for socio-economic, demographic, geographic and medical data. The primary outcome measure was the therapeutic delay, defined as the time elapsed between the onset of symptoms and initiation of antibiotics. Results. - Of the 117 patients included, 107 were men, with an average age of 44.9 +/- 15 years. The median therapeutic delay was 4 days (interquartile: 2-5 days) and this delay was not found to be associated with severity. The following were found to be at increased risk of having a longer therapeutic delay: cases occurring outside the epidemic period, or rainy season (OR 2.8 [1.08-7.3], P = 0.04) and cases with first medical evaluation in primary health care (OR 4.63 [1.43-14.93]; P = 0.01) instead of emergency unit. Nosocio-economic or geographic characteristics were found to be linked to a longer therapeutic delay. Conclusion. - Although delayed treatment was not associated to disease severity, our results indicate that leptospirosis awareness is needed all year in the subtropical area of Reunion Island and particularly in primary care.

    Affiliation IRD : UMR 228 (ESPACE-DEV)

    Lien Horizon FDI : http://www.documentation.ird.fr/hor/fdi:010079074

    Descr. géo. Horizon : OCEAN INDIEN ; REUNION

  7. Lobo Mtmps, Scalize P. S., Kraus C. N., da Silva W. J., Garnier J., Marques D. D., Bonnet Marie-Paule, Nogueira I. D. (2020). Biological index based on epiphytic diatom assemblages is more restrictive than the physicochemical index in water assessment on an Amazon floodplain, Brazil. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27 (10), 10642-10657.

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-07658-y

    WOS:000530470700039

    Canadian Water Quality Index (CWQI) provides protection for freshwater life promoting healthy ecosystems and safeguarding human health. Biological Diatom Index (BDI) was developed to indicate the ecological status and water quality of freshwater systems. This paper evaluates the relations between the two different indices. During rising and falling, water samples were taken in the Curuai Floodplain, Brazil. CWQI was calculated using 14 physicochemical parameters and 1 microbiological parameter. The limits were established according to freshwater quality conditions and standards based on water use classes 1 and 2 determined in CONAMA 357 legislation and British Columbia. Canadian Water Quality Index categorization ranged from "marginal" to "excellent," most sampling units were "good" (71%), followed by "fair" (12%) and "excellent" (12%) water quality. Total phosphorus (38 times), chlorophyll a (20), dissolved oxygen (10), and total organic carbon (10) were the parameters that presented the most non-compliance values. Encyonema silesiacum (14%), Gomphonema parvulum (13%), and Navicula cryptotenella (12%) were the main taxa in the rising period, while G. lagenula, E. silesiacum, and Fragilaria capucina were the main taxa during the falling period. BDI ranges from I to V water quality classes. We observed "poor" to "very good" ecological status, with most sampling units "moderate" (52%) and "good" (29%). Water quality for class 2 was better than water quality for class 1, as the limits of the parameters evaluated were more restrictive in class 1 than in class 2 and the predominant uses of water require a higher degree of water purity. The biological index based on diatoms was the most restrictive index whose water classes and categorizations have shown an ecological status that could threaten the protection of aquatic communities on the Curuai floodplain. We suggest the combined use of both indices-physicochemical and biological for water quality assessment in this type of environment.

    Affiliation IRD : (sans mention d'UMR) ; UMR 228 (ESPACE-DEV)

    Copublication Sud avec : Brésil

    Lien Horizon FDI : http://www.documentation.ird.fr/hor/fdi:010079090

    Descr. géo. Horizon : BRESIL ; AMAZONE BASSIN

  8. Manou-Abi S. M., Dimbour W. (2020). Asymptotically Periodic Solution of a Stochastic Differential Equation. Bulletin of the Malaysian Mathematical Sciences Society, 43 (1), 911-939.

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40840-019-00717-9

    WOS:000526822700050

    In this paper, we first introduce the concept and properties of omega-periodic limit process. Then, we apply specific criteria obtained to investigate asymptotically omega-periodicmild solutions of a Stochastic differential equation driven by a Brownian motion. Finally, we give an example to show usefulness of the theoretical results that we obtained in the paper.

    Affiliation IRD : UMR 228 (ESPACE-DEV)

  9. Marti Renaud, Li Z. C., Catry Thibault, Roux Emmanuel, Mangeas Morgan, Handschumacher Pascal, Gaudart J., Tran A., Demagistri Laurent, Faure Jean-François, Carvajal J. J., Drumond B., Xu L., Herbreteau Vincent, Gurgel H., Dessay Nadine, Gong P. (2020). A mapping review on urban landscape factors of dengue retrieved from earth observation data, GIS techniques, and survey questionnaires. Remote Sensing, 12 (6).

    http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/rs12060932

    WOS:000526820600034

    To date, there is no effective treatment to cure dengue fever, a mosquito-borne disease which has a major impact on human populations in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Although the characteristics of dengue infection are well known, factors associated with landscape are highly scale dependent in time and space, and therefore difficult to monitor. We propose here a mapping review based on 78 articles that study the relationships between landscape factors and urban dengue cases considering household, neighborhood and administrative levels. Landscape factors were retrieved from survey questionnaires, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and remote sensing (RS) techniques. We structured these into groups composed of land cover, land use, and housing type and characteristics, as well as subgroups referring to construction material, urban typology, and infrastructure level. We mapped the co-occurrence networks associated with these factors, and analyzed their relevance according to a three-valued interpretation (positive, negative, non significant). From a methodological perspective, coupling RS and GIS techniques with field surveys including entomological observations should be systematically considered, as none digital land use or land cover variables appears to be an univocal determinant of dengue occurrences. Remote sensing urban mapping is however of interest to provide a geographical frame to distribute human population and movement in relation to their activities in the city, and as spatialized input variables for epidemiological and entomological models.

    Affiliation IRD : UMR 228 (ESPACE-DEV) ; (sans mention d'UMR) ; UMR 250 (ENTROPIE) ; UMR 259 (SESSTIM)

    Copublication Sud avec : Brésil ; Chine

    Lien Horizon FDI : http://www.documentation.ird.fr/hor/fdi:010079027

    Descr. géo. Horizon : MONDE

  10. Moua Y., Roux Emmanuel, Seyler Frédérique, Briolant S. (2020). Correcting the effect of sampling bias in species distribution modeling : a new method in the case of a low number of presence data. Ecological Informatics, 57.

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoinf.2020.101086

    WOS:000528216500015

    Species distribution models that only require presence data provide potentially inaccurate results due to sampling bias and presence data scarcity. Methods have been proposed in the literature to minimize the effects of sampling bias, but without explicitly considering the issue of sample size. A new method developed to better take into account environmental biases in a context of data scarcity is proposed here. It is compared to other sampling bias correction methods primarily used in the literature by analyzing their absolute and relative impacts on model performances. Results showed that the number of presence sites is critical for selecting the applicable method. The method proposed was regularly placed in the first or second rank and tends to be more proficient than other methods in the context of presence site scarcity (<100). It tends to improve results regarding environment-based performance indexes. Eventually, its parametrization, requiring background knowledge on species bio-ecology, appears to be more robust and convenient to perform than those based on geographical criteria.

    Affiliation IRD : UMR 228 (ESPACE-DEV) ; (sans mention d'UMR)

    Lien Horizon FDI : http://www.documentation.ird.fr/hor/fdi:010079029

    Descr. géo. Horizon : GUYANE FRANCAISE

 

Habilitation à diriger des recherches - Rodolphe Devillers

rodolphe DToutes nos félicitations à Rodolphe Devillers, directeur de recherche à l'UMR Espace-Dev, qui a  soutenu son HDR  intitulée "Contributions de la géomatique à l’étude et la gestion des environnements marins" le 8 juin 2020.

Université Paris-Est, spécialité « Sciences de l’Information Géographique »

Le jury était composé de :

- Mme Sidonie CHRISTOPHE, Rapporteur, Directeur de Recherche, IGN
- M. Christophe CLARAMUNT, Rapporteur, Professeur, Institut de Recherche de l'Ecole navale
- M. Christophe DELACOURT, Rapporteur, Professeur, U. de Bretagne Occidentale
- Mme Françoise GOURMELON, Examinateur, Directeur de Recherche, CNRS
- M. Guillaume TOUYA, Examinateur et Président du jury, Directeur de Recherche, IGN

 

Ses travaux de recherche sont à l’interface entre la géomatique et les environnements marins et côtiers, utilisant les l’analyse spatiale, la modélisation, la géovisualisation et la collection de données hydrographiques et par drones en support gestion et protection des océans et des écosystèmes marins. Sa recherche porte entre autre sur la cartographie des habitats benthiques à l’aide de sonar multifaisceaux, la planification d’aires marines protégées, les petites pêches, la modélisation de la distribution d’espèces en péril et l’étude de la vulnérabilité de certaines espèces aux activités humaines en milieu marin.

 

 

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